Literature References

Here is a list of publications related to the spatiotemporal analysis approaches and methodologies we use at SpaceTimeWorks. You can find references for published material that describes in full detail the technical overview provided in the Research and Analysis pages.

The page contains references of books titles, peer reviewed journal and book articles, and doctoral dissertations. Among the journal articles we include additional related publications in the fields of spatial and spatiotemporal analysis that were co-authored by the SpaceTimeWorks collaborators. The articles list excludes published articles in conference proceedings. For an exhaustive list, you can visit our collaborators' websites.



Christakos G., Wang J.-F., and Wu J. 2014. Stochastic Medical Reasoning and Environmental Health Exposure. Imperial College Press, London.

Christakos G. 2010. Integrative Problem-Solving in a Time of Decadence. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.

Christakos G., Olea R.A., Serre M.L., Yu H.-L., and L.-L. Wang. 2005. Interdisciplinary Public Health Reasoning and Epidemic Modelling: The Case of Black Death. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.

Christakos G., Bogaert P., and M.L. Serre. 2002. Temporal GIS. With CD-ROM. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.

Christakos G. 2000. Modern Spatiotemporal Geostatistics. Oxford Univ Press, New York, NY; 2012. New edition, Dover Publ Inc., Mineola, NY.

Christakos G., and D.T. Hristopulos. 1998. Spatiotemporal Environmental Health Modelling: A Tractatus Stochasticus. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA, pp.423.

Christakos G. 1992. Random Field Models In Earth Sciences. Academic Press, San Diego, CA; 2005. New edition, Dover Publ Inc., Mineola, NY. 

Christakos G., Clark I., David M., Journel A.G., Krige D.G., and R.A. Olea. 1992. Geostatistical Glossary and Multilingual Dictionary. Oxford Univ Press, Oxford, UK.


Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles


Kolovos A., Smith L. M., Schwab-McCoy A., Gengler S., and H.-L. Yu. 2016. Emerging Patterns in Multi-Sourced Data Modeling Uncertainty. Spatial Statistics: Special Issue on Emerging Patterns, doi:

Hayunga D. K., and A. Kolovos. 2016. Geostatistical space–time mapping of house prices using Bayesian maximum entropy. Intl J of Geog Information Science, doi:

Yu H.-L., Ku S.-C., and A. Kolovos. 2015. A GIS tool for spatiotemporal modeling under a knowledge synthesis framework. Stoch Environ Res Risk Assess, 30(2), pp.665-679. doi:


Zagouras A., Kolovos A., and C.F.M. Coimbra. 2015. Objective Framework for Optimal Distribution of Solar Irradiance Monitoring Networks. Renewable Energy. 80, pp.153-165, doi:


Chien L.-C., and H.-L. Yu. 2014. The nonlinear temporal delayed effects of meteorological variables on the spatiotemporal distribution of dengue fever incidence: A case study in South Taiwan. Environment International. 73, pp. 46–56, doi:

Chien L.-C., Lien Y.-J., Yang C.-H., and H.-L. Yu. 2014. Acute Increase of Children's Conjunctivitis Clinic Visits by Asian Dust Storms Exposure - A Spatiotemporal Study in Taipei, Taiwan. PLoS ONE, 9(10),

Chiu, C.-H., Wen T.-H., Chien L.-C., and H.-L. Yu. 2014. A probabilistic spatial dengue fever risk assessment by a threshold based-quantile regression method. PLoS ONE. 9(10),

Kuo Y.-M., Chiu C.-H., and H.-L. Yu. 2014. Influences of ambient air pollutants and meteorological conditions on ozone variations in Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment.

Lin Y.-C., Chang T.-J., Lu M.-M., and H.-L. Yu. 2014. A space-time typhoon trajectories analysis in the vicinity of Taiwan. Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment.

Yu H.-L., Angulo J., Cheng M.-H., and G. Chrsistakos. 2014. An online spatiotemporal prediction model for dengue fever epidemic in Kaohsuing (Taiwan). Biom J, 56(3), pp. 428-440, doi:

Yu H.-L., Chen B.-L., Chiu C.-H., Lu M.-M., and C.-P. Tung, 2014. Analysis of space-time patterns of rainfall events during 1996-2008 in Yilan county (Taiwan). Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment.

Yu H.-L., Lin Y.-C., and Y.-M. Kuo. 2014. A time series analysis of multiple ambient pollutants to investigate the underlying air pollution dynamics and interactions. Chemosphere. doi:


Angulo J.M., Yu H.-L., Langousis A., Kolovos A., Wang J.-F., Madrid A.E., and G. Christakos. 2013. Spatiotemporal Infectious Disease Modeling: A BME-SIR Approach. PLoS ONE, 8(9), pp.1-12,

Chien L.-C., Yu H.-L., and M. Schootman. 2013. Efficient mapping and geographic disparities in breast cancer mortality at the county-level by race and age in the U.S. Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology, 5, pp.27-37,

Kolovos A., Angulo J.M., Modis K., Papantonopoulos G., Wang J.-F., and G. Christakos. 2013. Model-Driven Development of Covariances for Spatiotemporal Environmental Health Assessment. Envir Monit and Assessm, 185(1), pp.815-831, doi:

Kuo Y.-M., Jang C.-S., Yu H.-L., Chen S.-C., Chu H.-J. 2013. Identifying nearshore groundwater and river hydrochemical variables influencing water quality of Kaoping River Estuary using dynamic factor analysis. J. of Hydrology. 486, pp. 39–47.

Yu H.-L., Yang C.-H., Chien L.-C. 2013. Spatial vulnerability under extreme events: A case of Asian dust storm's effects on children's respiratory health. Environmental International. 54, pp. 35–44.

Yu H.-L., Wang C.-H. 2013. Quantile-Based Bayesian Maximum Entropy Approach for Spatiotemporal Modeling of Ambient Air Quality Levels. Environmental Sci & Tech. 47(3), pp. 1416-1424.

Yu H.-L., Lin Y.-C., Sivakumar B., Kuo Y.-M. 2013. A study of the temporal dynamics of ambient particulate matter using stochastic and chaotic techniques. Atmospheric Environment. 69, pp. 37–45.


Akita Y., Chen J.-C., and M.L. Serre. 2012. The moving-window Bayesian Maximum Entropy framework: Estimation of PM2.5 yearly average concentration across the contiguous United States. J of Expos Science and Envir Epidem, 22(5), pp. 496-501.

Angulo J.M, Yu H.-L., Langousis A., Madrid A.E., and G. Christakos. 2012. Modeling of space–time infectious disease spread under conditions of uncertainty. Int. J. Geogr. Inf. Sci. 26(10), pp.1751-1772. doi:

Chen C.-C., Wu C.-F., Yu H.-L., Chan C.-C., and T.-J. Cheng. 2012. Spatiotemporal modeling with temporal-invariant variogram subgroups to estimate fine particulate matter PM2.5 concentrations. Atmosph Envir. 54, pp.1-8, doi:

Chien L-.C., and H.-L. Yu. 2012. Estimated effects of Asian dust storms on spatiotemporal distributions of clinic visits for respiratory diseases in Taipei children (Taiwan). Envir Health Persp. 120(8), pp.1215-1220, doi:

Chu H.-J., Yu H.-L., and Y.-M. Kuo. 2012. Identifying spatial mixture distributions of PM2.5 and PM10 in Taiwan during and after a dust storm. Atmosph Envir. 54, pp.728-737,

Lee S.-J., Serre M.L., van Donkelaar A., Martin R.V., Burnett R.T., and M. Jerrett. 2012. Comparison of geostatistical interpolation and remote sensing techniques for estimating long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 concentrations across the continental United States. Envir Health Persp. 120(12), pp.1727-1732.

Messier K.P., Akita Y., and M.L. Serre. 2012. Integrating address geocoding, land use regression, and spatiotemporal geostatistical estimation for groundwater tetrachloroethylene. Envir Sci and Tech. 46(5), pp.2772-2780

Sanders A.P., Messier K.P., Shehee M., Rudo K., Serre M.L., and R.C. Fry. 2012. Arsenic in North Carolina: Public Health Implications, Envir International. 38, pp.10-16.

Yu H.-L., Chien L.-C., and C.-H. Yang. 2012. Asian Dust Storm Elevates Children’s Respiratory Health Risks: A Spatiotemporal Analysis of Children’s Clinic Visits across Taipei (Taiwan). PLoS ONE. 7(7), e41317. doi:

Yu H.-L., and H.-J. Chu. 2012. Recharge Signal Identification Based On Groundwater Level Observations. Envir Monit and Assessm. 184(10), pp. 5971-5982. doi:


Christakos G., Angulo J.M., and H.-L. Yu. 2011. Constructing Space-Time Pdfs in Geosciences. Boletín Geológico y Minero, 122(4), pp.531-542.

Doherty I.A., Adimora A.A., Muth S.Q., Serre M.L., Leone P.A., and W.C. Miller. 2011. Comparison of Sexual Mixing Patterns for Syphilis in Endemic and Outbreak Settings. Sexually Transm Dis, 38(5), 378-384.

Dubois G., Cornford D., Hristopulos D., Pebesma E., and J. Pilz. 2011. Introduction to This Special Issue on Geoinformatics for Environmental Surveillance. Comp ang Geosc, 37(3), pp.277-279, doi:

Hristopulos D.T., and M. Žukovič. 2011. Relationships Between Correlation Lengths and Integral Scales for Covariance Models With More Than Two Parameters. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 25(1), pp.11-19.

Kuo Y.-M., Wang S.-W., Jang C.-S., Yeh N., and H.-L. Yu. 2011. Identifying the Factors Influencing PM2.5 In Southern Taiwan Using Dynamic Factor Analysis. Atmosph Envir, 45(39), pp.7276-7285.

Kuo Y.-M., Chu H.-J., Pan T.-Y., and H.-L. Yu. 2011. Investigating Common Trends of Annual Maximum Rainfalls During Heavy Rainfall Events in Southern Taiwan. J Hydrology, 409(3), pp.749-758.

Liu W.-C., Yu H.-L., and C.-E. Chang. 2011. Assessment of Water Quality in a Subtropical Alpine Lake Using Multivariate Statistical Techniques and Geostatistical Mapping: A Case Study. Intl J of Envir Res and Public Health, 8(4), pp.1126-1140.

Lin Y.-P., Cheng B.-Y., Chu H.-J., Chang T.-K., and H.-L. Yu. 2011. Assessing How Heavy Metal Pollution and Human Activity are Related by Using Logistic Regressions and Kriging Methods. Geoderma, 163(3-4), pp.275-282.

Money E.S., Sackett D.K., Aday D.D., and M.L. Serre. 2011. Using River Distance and Existing Hydrography Data Can Improve the Geostatistical Estimation of Fish Tissue Mercury at Unsampled Locations. Envir Sci and Tech, 45(18), pp.7746-7753, doi:

Van Geen A., Ahmed K.M., Akita Y., Alam M.J., Culligan P.J., Emch M., Escamilla V., Feighery J., Ferguson A.S., Knappett P., Layton A., Mailloux B., McKay L.D., Mey J.L., Serre M.L., Streatfield P.K., Wu J., and M. Yunus. 2011. Fecal Contamination of Shallow Tubewells in Bangladesh Inversely Related to Arsenic. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 45(4), pp.1199-1205.

Sanders A.P., Messier K.P., Shehee M., Rudo K., Serre M.L., and R.C. Fry. 2011. Arsenic in North Carolina: Public Health Implications. Envir Intl, 38(1), pp.10-16.

Spiliopoulos I., Hristopulos D.T., Petrakis E., and A. Chorti. 2011. A Multigrid Method for the Estimation of Geometric Anisotropy in Environmental Data From Sensor Networks. Comp and Geosci, 37(3), pp.320-330.

Sullivan A.B., Gesink D.C., Brown P., Zhou L., Kaufman J.S., Fitch M., Serre M.L., and W.C. Miller. 2011. Are Neighborhood Sociocultural Factors Influencing the Spatial Pattern of Gonorrhea in North Carolina? Ann of Epidem, 21(4), pp.245-252, doi:

Wang J.-F., Reis B.Y., Hu M.-G., Christakos G., Yang W.-Z., Sun Q., Li Z.-J., Li X.-Z., Lai S.-J., and H. Chen. 2011. Area Disease Estimation Based on Sentinel Hospital Records. PLoS ONE, 6(8), e23428, doi:

Yu H.-L., and G. Christakos. 2011. Modeling and Estimation of Heterogeneous Spatiotemporal Attributes Under Conditions of Uncertainty. IEEE-Trans on Geosci and Remote Sensing, 49(1), pp.366-376.

Yu H.-L., and H.-J. Chu. 2011. Recharge Signal Identification Based on Groundwater Level Observations. Envir Monit and Assessm, doi:

Yu H.-L., Wang C.-H., Liu M.-C., and Y.-M. Kuo. 2011. Estimation of Fine Particulate Matter in Taipei Using Landuse Regression and Bayesian Maximum Entropy Methods. Intl J of Envir Res and Public Health, 8(6), pp.2153-2169.

Yu H.-L., Yang S.-J., Yeh H.-J, and G. Christakos. 2011. A Spatiotemporal Climate-Based Model of Early Dengue Fever Warning in Southern Taiwan. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 25(4), 485-494.


Allshouse W.B., Fitch M.K., Hampton K.H., Gesink D.C., Doherty I.A., Leone P.A., Serre M.L., and W.C. Miller. 2010. Geomasking Sensitive Health Data and Privacy Protection: An Evaluation Using an E911 Database. Geocarto Intl, 25(6), pp.443-452.

De Nazelle A., Arunachalam S., and M.L. Serre. 2010. Bayesian Maximum Entropy Integration of Ozone Observations and Model Predictions: An Application for Attainment Demonstration in North Carolina. Envir Sci and Tech, 44(15), pp.5707-5713, doi:

Hampton K.H., Fitch M.K., Allshouse W.B., Doherty I.A., Gesink D.C., Leone P.A., Serre M.L., and W.C. Miller. 2010. Mapping Health Data: Improved Privacy Protection with Donut Method Geomasking. Amer J Epidem, 172(9), pp.1061-1069.

Hussain I., Pilz J., Spoeck G., and H.-L. Yu. 2010. Spatio-Temporal Interpolation of Precipitation During Monsoon Periods in Pakistan. Adv Water Resour, 33(8), pp.880-886.

Knappett P.S.K., Layton A., McKay L.D., Williams D., Mailloux B.J., Huq M.R., Alam M.J., Ahmed K.M., Akita Y., Serre M.L., Sayler G.S., and A. van Geen. 2010. Efficacy of Hollow-Fiber Ultrafiltration for Microbial Sampling in Groundwater. Ground Water, 49(1), pp.53-65.

Kolovos A., Skupin A., Jerrett M., and G. Christakos. 2010. Multi-Perspective Analysis and Spatiotemporal Mapping of Air Pollution Monitoring Data. Envir Sci and Tech, 44(17), pp.6738-6744, doi:

Li Y., MacDonald Gibson J., Jat P., Puggioni G., Hasan M., West J.J., Vizuete W., Sexton K., and M.L. Serre. 2010. Burden of Disease Attributed to Anthropogenic Air Pollution in the United Arab Emirates: Estimates Based on Observed Air Quality Data. Sci of Total Envir, 408(23), pp.5784-5793.

Lin S.-T., Tan Y.-C., Chen C.-H., and H.-L. Yu. 2010. Effective Hydrogeological Parameter Estimation in Heterogeneous and Anisotropic Aquifer. J Hydrology, 389(1-2), pp.57-68.

Radoux J., Bogaert P., Fasbender D., and P. Defourny. 2010. Thematic Accuracy Assessment of Geographic Object-Based Image Classification. Intl J Geog Info Sci, 25(6), pp.1-17.

Wang J.-F., Liu X., Christakos G., Liao Y.-L., Gu X., and X.-Y. Zheng. 2010. Assessing Local Determinants of Neural Tube Defects in the Heshun Region, China. Intl J of Geog Inform Sci, 24(1), pp.107–127, doi:

Yu H.-L., Chiang C.-T., Lin S.-T., and C.-K. Chang. 2010. Spatiotemporal Analysis and Mapping of Oral Cancer Risk in Changhua County (Taiwan): An Application of Generalized Bayesian Maximum Entropy Method. Public Envir & Occup Health, 20(2), pp.99-107.

Yu H.-L., and H.-J. Chu. 2010. Understanding Space-time Patterns of Groundwater Systems by Empirical Orthogonal Functions: A Case Study in the Choshui River Alluvial Fan, Taiwan. J Hydrology, 381(3-4), pp.239-247.

Yu H.-L., and C.-H. Wang. 2010. Retrospective Prediction of Spatiotemporal Distribution of PM2.5 in the Metropolis Area: A Case Study in Taipei (Taiwan). Atmosph Envir, 44(25), pp.3053-3065.


Allshouse W.B., Pleil J.D., Rappaport S.M., and M.L. Serre. 2009. Mass Fraction Spatiotemporal Geostatistics and its Application to Map Atmospheric Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons After 9/11. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 23(8), pp.1213-1223.

Bogaert P., Christakos G., Jerrett M., and H.-L. Yu. 2009. Spatiotemporal Modelling of Ozone Distribution in the State of California. Atmosph Envir, 43(15), pp.2471-2480.

Coulliette A.D., Money E., Serre M.L. and R.T. Noble. 2009. Space/Time Analyses of Fecal Pollution and Rainfall in an Eastern North Carolina Estuary. Envir Sci and Tech, 43(10), pp.3728-3735.

Hristopulos D.T. 2009. Estimating Tree Abundance From Remotely Sensed Imagery in Semi-Arid and Arid Environments: Bringing Small Trees to the Light. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 23(1), pp.111-118.

Hristopulos D.T., and S.N. Elogne. 2009. Computationally Efficient Spatial Interpolators Based on Spartan Spatial Random Fields. IEEE Trans on Signal Proc, 57(9), 3475-3487.

Lee S.J, Yeatts K., and M.L. Serre. 2009. Mapping Childhood Asthma Prevalence Across North Carolina Using Data Collected at Different Spatial Observation Scales. Spat and Spatiotemp Epidem, 1(1), pp.49-60.

Money E., Carter G, and M.L. Serre. 2009. Modern Space/Time Geostatistics using River Distances: Data Integration of Turbidity and E.coli Measurements to Assess Fecal Contamination Along the Raritan River in New Jersey. Envir Sci And Tech, 43(10), 3736-3742.

Money E., Carter G, and M.L. Serre. 2009. Using River Distances in the Space/Time Estimation of Dissolved Oxygen along Two Impaired River Networks in New Jersey. Water Research, 43(7), pp.1948-1958.

Pang W., Christakos G. and J.-F. Wang. 2009. Comparative Spatiotemporal Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter Pollution. Environmetrics, 21(3-4), pp.305-317, doi:

Porcu E., Mateu J., and G. Christakos. 2009. Quasi-Arithmetic Means of Covariance Functions With Potential Applications to Space-Time Data. J of Multivar Anal, 100(8), pp.1830-1844, doi: 

Wang J.-F., Li L.-F., and G. Christakos, 2009. Estimating spatial attribute means in a GIS environment. Science China Earth Sci, 53(2), pp.181-188, doi:

Žukovič M., and D.T. Hristopulos. 2009a. Classification of Missing Values in Spatial Data Using Spin Models. Phys Rev E, 80(1), 011116, doi:

Žukovič M., and D.T. Hristopulos. 2009b. The Method of Normalized Correlations: A Fast Parameter Estimation Method for Random Processes and Isotropic Random Fields That Focuses on Short-Range Dependence. Technometrics, 15(2), pp.173-185.

Žukovič M., and D.T. Hristopulos. 2009c. Multilevel Discretized Random Field Models With 'Spin' Correlations for the Simulation of Environmental Spatial Data. J Stat Mechan: Theory and Exper, P02023, doi:


Bogaert P., Christakos G., Jerrett M., and H.-L. Yu. 2008. Spatiotemporal Modelling of Ozone Distribution in the State of California. Atmosph Envir, 43(15), pp.2471-2480.

Bontemps S., Bogaert P., Titeux N., and P. Defourny. 2008. An Object-Based Change Detection Method Accounting for Temporal Dependences in Time Series With Medium to Coarse Spatial Resolution. Rem Sens of Envir, 112, pp.3181-3191.

Choi K.-M., Christakos G., and Wilson, M.L. 2008. Spatiotemporal Statistical Analysis of Influenza Mortality Risk in the State of California During the Period 1997–2001. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 22, pp.S15-S25.

Chorti A., and D.T. Hristopulos. 2008. Non-Parametric Identification of Anisotropic (Elliptic) Correlations in Spatially Distributed Data Sets. IEEE Trans on Signal Proc, 56(10), 4738-4751.

Elogne S., Hristopulos D.T., and E. Varouchakis. 2008. An Application of Spartan Spatial Random Fields in Environmental Mapping: Focus on Automatic Mapping Capabilities. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 22(5), pp.633-646.

Fasbender D., Devis T., Bogaert P., and M. Kanevski. 2008. Support-Based Implementation of Bayesian Data Fusion for Spatial Enhancement: Applications to ASTER Thermal Images. IEEE Geosc and Rem Sens Let, 5(4), pp.598-602.

Fasbender D., Peeters L., Bogaert P., and A. Dassargues. 2008. Bayesian Data Fusion Applied to Water Table Spatial Mapping. Water Resour Res, 44, pp.1-9.

Fasbender D., Radoux J., and P. Bogaert. 2008. Bayesian Data Fusion for Adaptable Image Pansharpening. IEEE Trans Geosc and Rem Sens, 46(6), pp.1847-1857.

Wang J.F., Christakos G., Han W.G., and Meng B. 2008. Data-driven Exploration of 'Spatial Pattern-Time Process-Driving Forces' Associations of SARS Epidemic in Beijing, China. J of Public Health, 122(1-11), pp.234-244, doi:

Yu H.-L., Chen J.-C., Christakos G., and M. Jerrett. 2008. BME Estimation of Residential Exposure to Ambient PM10 and Ozone at Multiple Time-Scales. Environ Health Persp, 117(4), pp.537-544, doi:

Žukovič M., and D.T. Hristopulos. 2008a. Spartan Random Processes in Time Series Modeling. Physica A-Stat Mech and Its Appl, 387(15), pp.3995-4001.

Žukovič M., and D.T. Hristopulos. 2008b. Environmental Time Series Interpolation Based on Spartan Random Processes. Atmosph Envir, 42(33), pp.7669-7678.


Akita Y., Carter G, and M.L. Serre. 2007. Spatiotemporal Non-Attainment Assessment of Surface Water Tetrachloroethene in New Jersey. J Environ Qual, 36(2), pp.508-520.

Baker R., and G. Christakos, 2007a. Revisiting Prior Distributions, Part I: Priors Based on a Physical Invariance Principle. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 21(4), pp.427-434.

Baker R., and G. Christakos, 2007b. Revisiting Prior Distributions, Part II: Implications of the Physical Prior in Maximum Entropy Analysis. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 21(4), pp.435-446. 

Bogaert P., and D. Fasbender. 2007. Bayesian Data Fusion in a Spatial Prediction Context: A General Formulation. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 21(6), pp.695-709.

Christakos G., Olea R.A., and H.-L. Yu. 2007. Recent Results on the Spatiotemporal Modelling and Comparative Analysis of Black Death and Bubonic Plague Epidemics. Public Health, 121, pp.700-720.

Dendoncker N., Rounsevell M., and P. Bogaert. 2007. Spatial Analysis and Modelling of Land Use Distributions in Belgium. Comp Envir and Urban Syst, 31(2), pp.188-205.

Hristopulos D.T. 2007. Analytic Properties and Covariance Functions for a New Class of Generalized Gibbs Random Fields. IEEE Trans on Inf Theory, 53(12), pp.4667-4679.

LoBuglio J.N., Characklis G.W., and M.L. Serre. 2007. Cost-Effective Water Quality Assessment Through the Integration of Monitoring Data and Modeling Results. Water Resour Res, 43, W03435, pp.1-16.

Mateu J., Porcu E., Christakos G., and M. Bevilacqua. 2007. Fitting negative spatial covariances to geothermal field temperatures in Nea Kessani (Greece). Environmetrics, 18(7), pp.759-773.

Puangthongthub S., Wangwongwatana, S., Kamens, R.M., and M.L. Serre. 2007. Modeling the Space/Time Distribution of Particulate Matter in Thailand and Optimizing Its Monitoring Network. Atmosph Envir, 41(36), pp.7788-7805.

Wilson S.M., and M.L. Serre. 2007a. Use Of Passive Samplers To Measure Atmospheric Ammonia Levels In A High-Density Industrial Hog Farm Area Of Eastern North Carolina. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 41(28), pp.6074-6086.

Wilson S.M., and M.L. Serre. 2007b. Examination of Atmospheric Ammonia Levels near Hog CAFOs, Homes, and Schools in Eastern North Carolina. Atmosph Envir, 41(33), pp.4977-4987.

Yu H.-L., Christakos G., Modis K., and G. Papantonopoulos. 2007. Composite Solution of a Physical Equation Representing the Three-Dimensional Geothermal Field in Nea Kessiani (Greece). J Geophys Research, doi:

Yu H.-L., Kolovos A., Christakos G., Chen J.-C., Warmerdam S., and B. Dev. 2007. Interactive Spatiotemporal Modelling of Health Systems: The SEKS-GUI Framework. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment: Special Volume on Medical Geography as a Science of Interdisciplinary Knowledge Synthesis under Conditions of Uncertainty, 21(5), pp.555-572.

Vancutsem C., Pekel J.-F., Bogaert P., and P. Defourny. 2007. Mean Compositing, an Alternative Strategy for Producing Temporal Syntheses. Concepts and Performance Assessment for SPOT VEGETATION Time Series. Intl J Rem Sens, 28(22), pp.5123-5141.


Choi K.-M., Christakos G., and Wilson M.L. 2006. El Niño Effects on Influenza Mortality Risks in the State of California, Public Health, 120, pp.505-516.

Dendoncker N., Bogaert P., and M. Rounsevell. 2006. A Statistical Method to Downscale Aggregated Land Use Data and Scenarios. J Land Use Sci, 1(2-4), pp.63-82.

Desclée B., Bogaert P., and P. Defourny. 2006. Forest Change Detection by Statistical Object-Based Method. Rem Sens of Envir, 102, pp.1-11.

Hristopulos D.T. 2006a. Approximate Methods for Explicit Calculations of Non-Gaussian Moments. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 20(4), pp.278-290.

Hristopulos D.T. 2006b. Spartan Spatial Random Field Models Inspired from Statistical Physics with Applications in the Geosciences, Physica A: Stat Mech and Its Appl, 365(1-2), pp.211-216.

Law D.C.G., Bernstein K., Serre M.L., Schumacher C.M., Leone P.A., Zenilman J.M., Miller W.C., and A.M. Rompalo. 2006. Modeling an Early Syphilis Outbreak Through Space and Time Using the Bayesian Maximum Entropy Approach. Ann of Epidem, 16(11), pp.797-804.

Leterme B., Vanclooster M., Rounsevell M., and P. Bogaert. 2006. Discriminating Between Point Source and Non-Point Source of Atrazine Contamination of a Sandy Aquifer. Sci Total Envir, 362(1-3), pp.124-142.

Wibrin M.-A., Bogaert P., and D. Fasbender. 2006. Combining Categorical and Continuous Spatial Information Within the Bayesian Maximum Entropry Paradigm. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 20(6), pp.423-434.

Yu H.-L., and G. Christakos. 2006a. Spatiotemporal Modelling and Mapping of the Bubonic Plague Epidemic in India. Intl J of Health Geog, 5(12). On-line Serials. No. 3 among the 10 most highly-accessed papers for 2006.

Yu H.-L., and G. Christakos. 2006b. Porous Media Upscaling in Terms of Mathematical Epistemic Cognition. SIAM-Appl Math, 66(2), pp.433-446.


Christakos G., and R.A. Olea. 2005. New Space-Time Perspectives on the Propagation Characteristics of the Black Death Epidemic and Its Relation to Bubonic Plague, Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 19(5), pp.307-314. 

Douaik A., Van Meirvenne M., and T. Tóth. 2005. Soil Salinity Mapping Using Spatio-Temporal Kriging and Bayesian Maximum Entropy With Interval Soft Data. Geoderma, 128, pp.234-248.

Olea R.A., and G. Christakos G. 2005. Duration of Urban Mortality for the 14th Century Black Death Epidemic. Human Biol, 77(3), pp.291-303.

Savelieva E., Demyanov V., Kanevski M., Serre M.L., and G. Christakos. 2005. BME Application for Uncertainty Assessment of the Chernobyl Fallouts. Geoderma, 128, pp.312-324. Awarded best paper in Pedometrics for 2005.


Christakos G., Kolovos A., Serre M.L., and F. Vukovich. 2004. Total Ozone Mapping by Integrating Data Bases From Remote Sensing Instruments and Empirical Models. IEEE-Trans on Geosci and Remote Sensing, 42(5), pp.991-1008.

Douaik A., Van Meirvenne M., Tóth T., and M.L. Serre. 2004. Space-Time Mapping of Soil Salinity Using Probabilistic Bayesian Maximum Entropy. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 18, pp.219-227.

Kolovos A., Christakos G., Hristopulos D.T., and M.L. Serre. 2004. On Certain Classes Of Non-Separable Spatiotemporal Covariance Models. Adv in Water Resour, 27, pp.815-830.

Kovitz J.,and G. Christakos. 2004. Assimilation of Fuzzy Data by the BME Method. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 18(2), pp.79-90.

Kovitz J.,and G. Christakos. 2004. Spatial Statistics of Clustered Data. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 18(3), pp.147-166.

Law D.C.G., Serre M.L., Christakos G., Leone P.A., and W.C. Miller. 2004. Spatial Analysis and Mapping of Sexually Transmitted Diseases to Optimize Intervention and Prevention Strategies. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 80(11), pp.294-299.


Choi K.-M., Serre M.L., and G. Christakos. 2003. Efficient Mapping of California Mortality Fields at Different Spatial Scales, J of Expos Anal and Envir Epidem, 13(2), pp.120-133.

Christakos G. 2003a. Critical Conceptualism in Environmental Modelling and Prediction. Envir Sci And Tech, 37, pp.4685-4693.

Christakos G. 2003b. Another Look at the Conceptual Fundamentals of Porous Media Upscaling. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 17(5-6), pp.276-290.

D'Or D., and P. Bogaert. 2003. Continuous-Valued Map Reconstruction With the Bayesian Maximum Entropy. Geoderma, 112, pp.169-178.

Hristopulos D.T. 2003. Spartan Gibbs Random Field Models for Geostatistical Applications. SIAM J Sci Comp, 24(6), pp.2125-2162.

Serre M.L., Christakos G., Li H., and C.T. Miller. 2003. A BME Solution to the Inverse Problem for Saturated Groundwater Flow. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 17(6), pp.354-369.

Serre M.L., Kolovos A., Christakos G., and K. Modis. 2003. An Application of the Holistochastic Human Exposure Methodology to Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Bangladesh Drinking Water. Risk Analysis, 23(3), pp.515-528.


Bogaert P. 2002. Spatial Prediction of Categorical Variables: The Bayesian Maximum Entropy Approach. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 16, pp.425-448.

Bogaert P., and D. D'Or. 2002. Estimating Soil Properties From Thematic Soil Maps: The Bayesian Maximum Entropy Approach. Soil Sci Soc Am J, 66, pp.1492-1500.

Christakos G. 2002a. On a Deductive Logic-Based Spatiotemporal Random Field Theory. Teoriya Imovirnostey ta Matematychna Statystyka (Probability Theory and Mathematical Statistics), 66, pp. 54-65.

Christakos G. 2002b. On the Assimilation of Uncertain Physical Knowledge Bases: Bayesian and Non-Bayesian Techniques. Adv in Water Resour, 25(8-12), pp.1257-1274.

Hristopulos D.T. 2002. New Anisotropic Covariance Models and Estimation of Anisotropic Parameters Based on the Covariance Tensor Identity. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 16(1), pp.43-62.

Kolovos A., Christakos G., Serre M.L., and C.T. Miller. 2002. Computational Bayesian Maximum Entropy Solution of a Stochastic Advection-Reaction Equation in the Light of Site-Specific Information. Water Resour Res, 38(12), pp.1318-1334.


Christakos G., Serre M.L., and J. Kovitz. 2001. BME Representation Of Particulate Matter Distributions in the State Of California on the Basis of Uncertain Measurements. J of Geoph Res Atmosph, 106(D9), pp.9717-9731.

D'Or D., Bogaert P., and G. Christakos. 2001. Application of the BME Approach to Soil Texture Mapping. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 15, pp.87-100.

Hristopulos D.T., and G. Christakos. 2001. Practical Calculation of Non-Gaussian Multivariate Moments in Spatiotemporal Bayesian Maximum Entropy Analysis. Math Geol, 33, pp.543-568.


Christakos G., Hristopulos D.T., and P. Bogaert. 2000. On the Physical Geometry Concept at the Basis of Space/Time Geostatistical Hydrology. Adv in Wat Resour, 23, pp.799-810.

Christakos G., Hristopulos D.T., and A. Kolovos. 2000. Stochastic Flowpath Analysis of Multiphase Flow in Random Porous Media. SIAM J on Appl Math, 60(5), pp.1520-1542.

Christakos G., and V. Papanicolaou. 2000. Norm-Dependent Covariance Permissibility of Weakly Homogeneous Spatial Random Fields and Its Consequences in Spatial Statistics. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 14(6), pp.471-478.

Christakos G., and M.L. Serre. 2000a. BME Analysis of Spatiotemporal Particulate Matter Distributions in North Carolina. Atmosph Envir, 34, pp.3393-3406.

Christakos G., and M.L. Serre. 2000b. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Environmental Exposure-Health Effect Associations. J Expos Anal and Envir Epidem, 10, pp.168-187.


Christakos G., and A. Kolovos. 1999. A Study Of The Spatiotemporal Health Impacts of Ozone Exposure. J of Exposure Anal and Envir Epidem, 9(4), pp.322-335.

Serre M.L., and G. Christakos. 1999. Modern Geostatistics: Computational BME Analysis in the Light of Uncertain Physical Knowledge-The Equus Beds Study. Stoch Envir Res and Risk Assessment, 13(1), pp.1-26.


Cassiani G., and G. Christakos. 1998. Analysis and Estimation of Spatial Non-Homogeneous Natural Processes Using Secondary Information. Math Geol, 30(1), pp.57-76.

Christakos G. 1998. Spatiotemporal Information Systems in Soil and Environmental Sciences, Geoderma, 85(2-3), pp.141-179.

Christakos G., Hristopulos D.T., and X. Li. 1998. Multiphase Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media: A Stochastic Differential Geometry Viewpoint, Water Resour Res, 34(1), pp.93-102.

Christakos G., and X.Y. Li. 1998. Bayesian Maximum Entropy Analysis and Mapping: A Farewell to Kriging Estimators? Math Geol, 30, pp.435-462.

Christakos G., and V.M. Vyas. 1998a. A Novel Method for Studying the Health Impacts of Spatiotemporal Ozone Distribution Over Eastern United States. Soc Sci Medicine, 47(8), pp.1051-1066.

Christakos G., and V.M. Vyas. 1998b. A Composite Spatiotemporal Study of Ozone Distribution Over Eastern United States. Atmosph Envir, 32(16), pp.2845-2857.

Lee Y.M. 1998. A Methodological Study of the Application of the Maximum Entropy Estimator to Spatial Interpolation. J Geog Inform and Decision Anal, 2(2), pp.243-251.


Bogaert P., and G. Christakos. 1997a. Spatiotemporal Analysis and Processing of Thermometric Data Over Belgium. J of Geoph Res Atmosph, 102(D22), pp:25,831-25,846.

Bogaert P., and G. Christakos. 1997b. Stochastic Analysis of Spatiotemporal Solute Content Measurements Using a Regressive Model. Stoch Hydrol and Hydraul, 11(4), pp.267-295.

Lee Y.M., and J.H. Ellis. 1997. On the Equivalence of Kriging and Maximum Entropy Estimators. Math Geol, 29(1), pp.131-152.

Christakos G., and D.T. Hristopulos. 1997a. Stochastic Radon Operators in Porous Media Hydrodynamics. Quarterly of Appl Math, LV(1), pp.89-112.

Christakos G., and D.T. Hristopulos. 1997b. Stochastic Indicator Analysis of Contaminated Sites. J of Appl Prob, 34(4), pp.988-1008.

Christakos G., and J. Lai. 1997. A study of the Breast Cancer Dynamics in North Carolina. Soc Sci Medicine, 45(10), pp.1503-1517.

Vyas V.M., and G. Christakos. 1997. Spatiotemporal Analysis and Mapping of Sulfate Deposition Data Over the Conterminous USA. Atmosph Envir, 31(12), pp.3623-3633.


Bogaert P. 1996. Comparison of Kriging Techniques in a Space-Time Context. Math Geol, 28(1), pp.73-86.

Christakos G., and P. Bogaert. 1996. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Springwater Ion Processes Derived From Measurements at the Dyle Basin in Belgium. IEEE-Trans on Geosci and Remote Sensing, 34(3), pp.626-642. 

Christakos G., and D.T. Hristopulos. 1996a. Characterization of Atmospheric Pollution Using Stochastic Indicators. Atmosph Envir, 30(22), pp.3811-3823. 

Christakos G., and D.T. Hristopulos. 1996b. Stochastic Indicators for Waste Site Characterization. Water Resour Res, 32(8), pp.2563-2578.


Christakos G., and G.A. Thesing. 1993. The Intrinsic Random Field Model and Its Application in the Study of Sulfate Deposition data. Atmosph Envir, 27A(10), pp.1521-1540.


Christakos G. 1991. On Certain Classes of Spatiotemporal Random Fields With Application to Space-Time Data Processing. IEEE-Trans on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 21(4), pp.861-875. 

1990 and earlier

Christakos G. 1990. A Bayesian/Maximum-Entropy View to the Spatial Estimation Problem, Math Geol, 22(7), pp.763-767.

Christakos G. 1988a. A Simple Approach to Nonlinear Estimation of Physical Systems, J of Math & Computer Modelling, 11, pp.583-588.

Christakos G. 1988b. On-Line Estimation of Nonlinear Physical Systems. Math Geol, 20(2), pp.111-133.

Christakos G. 1987a. Stochastic Simulation of Spatially Correlated Geoprocesses. Math Geol, 19(8), pp.803-827.

Christakos G. 1987b. The Space Transformations in the Simulation of Multidimensional Random Fields. J of Math & Comp in Simu, 29, pp.313-319. 

Christakos G., and P.N. Paraskevopoulos. 1987. On The Functional Optimization of a Certain Class of Nonstationary Spatial Functions. J of Optim Theory and Appl, 52(2), pp.191-208.

Christakos G., 1985. Recursive Parameter Estimation With Applications in Earth Sciences. Math Geology, 17(5), pp.489-515. 

Christakos G., 1984. On The Problem of Permissible Covariance and Variogram Models. Water Resour Res, 20(2), pp.251-265. 


Book Articles and Chapters

Yu H.-L., Ku S.-C., and A. Kolovos. 2014. A GIS-Based Spatiotemporal Modeling with Bayesian maximum entropy method. In: Henle K., Potts S.G., Kunin W.E., Matsinos Y.G., Similä J., Pantis J.D., Grobelnik V., Penev L., and Settele J. (eds.). Scaling in Ecology and Biodiversity Conservation, pp. 100-103. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, Bulgaria.

Christakos G., and Wang J.F. 2011. Space-Time Synthesis in Health Sciences. In: Fischer M.M. (ed.). Handbook of Regional Science. Springer, Berlin.

Yu H.-L., Wang C.-H., Christakos G., and Y.-Z. Wu. 2011. Spatiotemporal Analysis of PM2.5 Exposure in Taipei (Taiwan) by Integrating PM10 and TSP Observations. In: McLafferty S., and J. Maantay (eds.). Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Health. Springer Series on "Geotechnologies and the Environment", New York, NY.

Yu H.-L., Ku S.-C., Yang C.-H., Cheng T.-J, and L. Chen. 2011. Assessment of Areal Average Air Quality Level Over Irregular Areas: a Case Study of PM10 Exposure Estimation in Taipei (Taiwan). In: Nejadkoorki F. (ed.). Advanced Air Pollution. InTech.

Yu H.-L., Christakos G., and P. Bogaert. 2010. Dealing with Spatiotemporal Heterogeneity: The Generalized BME Model. In: Fischer M.M., Hewings G.J.D., Nijkamp P., Snickars F., and A. Nagurney (eds.). Advances in Spatial Sciences. Springer.

Chan T.-C., Yu H.-L., Chiang P.-H., and C.-C. King. 2009. Bayesian Maximum Entropy Modeling of Spatio-temporal Winter Influenza Epdiemic in Taiwan. In: Zeng D., Chan T.-C., King C.-C., and H. Chen(eds.). Intelligence and Security Informatics: Biosurveillance and Biosecurity. Westing Publishing Co., New York, NY.

Christakos G. 2008. Bayesian Maximum Entropy. In: Kanevski M. (ed.). Advanced Mapping of Environmental Data: Geostatistics, Machine Learning, and Bayesian Maximum Entropy. Chapter 6, pp.247-306, J. Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

Christakos G. 2008. Spatiotemporal Statistics and Geostatistics. In: Mateu, J. and E. Porcu (eds.). Positive Definite Functions: From Schoenberg to Space-Time Challenges. Chapter 5, pp.117-153, UJI Publ., Castello de la Plana, Spain.

Pan T.-Y., Wang R.-Y., Lai J.-S., and H.-L. Yu. 2008. Application of Recurrent Neural Networks to Rainfall-runoff Processes. In: Recurrent Neural Networks. I-Tech Education and Publishing, Vienna, Austria, pp.203-228.}

Modis K., Yu H.-L., Christakos G., Stewart R., and G. Papantonopoulos. 2007. Novel Tools in Geothermal Energy Research. In: Columbus F. (ed.). Geothermal Energy Research Frontiers. Nova Science Publishers, Inc.}, Hauppauge, NY, pp.3-17.

Hristopulos D.T. 2007. Identification of Spatial Anisotropy by Means of the Govariance Tensor Identity. In: Dubois G. (ed.). Automatic Mapping Algorithms for Routine and Emergency Monitoring Data: Spatial Interpolation Comparison. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg, pp.103-124.

Yu H.-L., Christakos G., and J.-C. Chen. 2007. Spatiotemporal Air Pollution Modeling and Prediction in Epidemiologic Research. In: Columbus F. (ed.). Air Pollution Research Trends. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., Hauppauge, NY, pp.57-75.

Christakos G. 1991. Certain Results on Spatiotemporal Random Fields and Their Applications in Environmental Research. In: Byrnes J.S., Byrnes J.L., Hargreaves K.A., and K. Berry (eds.). Probabilistic & Stochastic Methods in Analysis with Applications 372:287-322, Kluwer Acad Publ, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.



Akita Y. 2010. Spatial Statistics and Regression Analysis of Environmental Exposure and Disease: From Air Pollution and Microbial Groundwater Contamination Assessment to Diarrhea Disease Mapping. PhD dissertation. Dept. of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Chapel Hill, NC.

Money E. 2008. Modern Space/Time Geostatistics Using River Distances: Theory and Applications for Water Quality Mapping. PhD dissertation. Dept. of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Chapel Hill, NC.

Lee S.-J. 2005. Models of Soft Data in Geostatistics and Their Application in Environmental and Health Mapping. PhD dissertation. Dept. of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Chapel Hill, NC.

Yu H.-L. 2005. Development and Implementation of Knowledge Synthesis Methods for Stochastic Natural Systems. PhD dissertation. Dept. of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Chapel Hill, NC.

D'Or D. 2003. Spatial Prediction of Soil Properties: The Bayesian Maximum Entropy Approach. PhD Dissertation. Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium.

Kovitz J. 2002. Knowledge Base Development from Data for Modern Geostatistics. PhD dissertation. Dept. of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Chapel Hill, NC.

Choi K.M. 2001. BME-Based Spatiotemporal Local Scale Mapping and Filtering of Mortality Data: The California Study. PhD Dissertation. Dept. of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.

Kolovos A. 2001. Computational Investigations of the BME Mapping Approach and Incorporation of Physical Knowledge Bases. PhD dissertation. Dept. of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.

Serre M.L. 1999. Environmental Spatiotemporal Mapping and Ground Water Flow Modelling Using the BME and ST Methods. PhD Dissertation. Dept. of Environmental Sciences & Engineering, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC.

Bogaert P. 1996. Geostatistics Applied to the Analysis of Space-Time Data. PhD Dissertation. Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium.

Space-Time Imaging